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Компьютерная томография при черепно-мозговой травме у младенцев и детей младшего возраста (обзор литературы)

https://doi.org/10.24835/1607-0763-1116

Полный текст:

Аннотация

Цель исследования: проанализировать последние исследования, относящиеся к вопросам применения компьютерной томографии (КТ) при черепно-мозговой травме (ЧМТ) у детей раннего возраста.
Результаты. ЧМТ – одна из частых причин смерти и инвалидности у детей. Детская ЧМТ связана с рядом характеристик, отличающих ее от взрослых. Это обусловлено возрастными анатомо-физиологические различиями, зависящими от физического состояния ребенка и трудностями с неврологической оценкой у детей. Дети раннего возраста проявляют специфические патологические реакции на ЧМТ с четкими сопутствующими неврологическими проявлениями. В этом обзоре представлена важная информация о текущих аспектах использования КТ при всех видах изолированной тупой ЧМТ у детей в возрасте от рождения до 3 лет с учетом особенностей, соответствующих возрасту в условиях неотложной помощи. Хотя механизмы ЧМТ у раннего возраста аналогичны взрослым, визуальные проявления травм головы у детей имеют свои особенности из-за развивающегося мозга и свода черепа. Основная роль радиолога – определить и охарактеризовать тип и степень тяжести травмы головы, чтобы помочь правильному ведению пациента. Исходя из информации, полученной при КТ, зная механизм ЧМТ у младенцев и детей раннего возраста, радиологи играют ключевую роль как в диагностике, так и в выборе эффективного лечения и улучшении результатов лечения и исходов.
Заключение. КТ головы с многоплановыми и 3D-реконструкциями в настоящее время заменила рентгенографию черепа при подозрения на ЧМТ и стала важнейшим диагностическим методом у пациентов с ЧМТ в условиях неотложной помощи. Рентгенограммы не добавляют дополнительной диагностической информации и могут быть исключены из исследования в случае проведения КТ с 3D-реконструкцией.

Об авторах

Е. С. Зайцева
НИИ неотложной детской хирургии и травматологии ДЗ г. Москвы
Россия

Зайцева Екатерина Сергеевна – врач-рентгенолог отдела лучевых методов диагностики
Тел.: +7-916-509-76-12

119180 Москва, ул. Большая Полянка, д. 22, 137


Конфликт интересов:

Авторы подтверждают отсутствие конфликтов интересов.



А. Д. Маматкулов
НИИ неотложной детской хирургии и травматологии ДЗ г. Москвы
Россия

Маматкулов Алишер Джахангирович – аспирант отделения нейрохирургии

119180 Москва, ул. Большая Полянка, д. 22


Конфликт интересов:

Авторы подтверждают отсутствие конфликтов интересов.



Т. А. Ахадов
НИИ неотложной детской хирургии и травматологии ДЗ г. Москвы
Россия

Ахадов Толибджон Абдуллаевич – доктор мед. наук, профессор, руководитель отдела лучевых методов диагностики

119180 Москва, ул. Большая Полянка, д. 22


Конфликт интересов:

Авторы подтверждают отсутствие конфликтов интересов.



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Зайцева Е.С., Маматкулов А.Д., Ахадов Т.А. Компьютерная томография при черепно-мозговой травме у младенцев и детей младшего возраста (обзор литературы). Медицинская визуализация. 2022;26(2):39-57. https://doi.org/10.24835/1607-0763-1116

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Zaitceva E.S., Mamatkulov A.D., Akhadov T.A. Computed tomography of traumatic brain injury in infants and young children (a literature review). Medical Visualization. 2022;26(2):39-57. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.24835/1607-0763-1116

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